Mini Safety Data Sheets could be used by First Responders to prepare them for the potential hazards they may encounter when entering or isolating a release site.
Cards use the criteria in NFPA 704 “Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response“,
Images and Environmental impact scores are derived from the UN GHS “Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals“
The material hazards are similar to the Chemical Safety cards (mini SDS):
These are summarised as follows:
|0||No additional health hazards||Will not burn under typical fire conditions||Normally stable||No Special hazards||No significant harm|
|1||Can cause significant irritation||Must be preheated before ignition can occur||Can become unstable at elevated conditions||1 Special Hazard||Potentially Harmful (H413)|
|2||Can cause temporary incapacitation or residual injury||Must be exposed to relatively high temperatures before ignition||Violent chemical change at elevated conditions||2 Special Hazards||Harmful (H402 or H412)|
|3||Can cause serious or permanent injury||Can be ignited under almost all ambient conditions||Capable of explosive decomposition with initiation||3 Special Hazards||Toxic (H401 or H411)|
|4||Can be lethal||Vapourise at atmospheric pressure & ambient temperature||Capable of explosive decomposition||4 Special Hazards||Very Toxic (H400 or H410)|
Emergency Response cards develop this numerical risk ranking approach and consider the operating conditions (Pressure & Temperature) on the basis that the more extreme the conditions under which the material is handled and/or the more material there is and/or the more exposed or vulnerable the plant is, then the greater the potential for and scale of a loss of containment.
The following overview summarises the concept of a Process Safety Index on which these cards are based:
It must be recognized that innocuous fluids such as water can be hazardous at extreme conditions i.e. high pressure/temperature steam and it may be appropriate to set the minimum Properties value to 1 (rather than 0) for materials that do not generate a conventional score (in NFPA 704 or GHS) to recognise the potential for harm.
The following Process (Condition) parameters are proposed based on design conditions. Remember these are a simple relative tranking in order for initial and subsequent responders to make better informed decisions to deploy limited resources and prioritise activities under often stressful conditions.
The pressure within the asset contributes to both the potential for release (greater stress) and the scale of release (greater distance).
Note that vacuum conditions have a higher score than atmospheric pressure due to the potential for implosion.
|0||Atmospheric between -2.5 mbar and +7.5 mbar (-1” wg and +3” wg)|
|1||Vacuum below -2.5 mbar (-1” wg)|
|2||Up to 10 barG (150 psig)|
|3||Up to 100 barG (1500 psig)|
|4||Above 100 barG (1500 psig)|
Similarly, the temperature of/within the asset contributes to both the potential for release (greater stress) and the scale of release (greater distance).
Note that cryogenic conditions have a higher score than ambient temperature due to the potential for low-temperature failure.
|0||Ambient between -29 °C and +60 °C (-20 °F and 140 °F)|
|1||Cryogenic below -29 °C (-20 °F) e.g. steel embrittlement|
|2||Up to 100 °C (212 °F) e.g. water boiling point|
|3||Above flashpoint or up to 200 °C (392 °F) e.g. steel deformation|
|4||Above autoignition temperature or above 200 °C (392 °F)|
The mass or volume of hazardous material that could potential be released is a key considerationm when judging which assets to protect or isolate in an emergency, therefore a relative ranking scale based on ANSI/API RP 754 (Process Safety Performance Indicators for the Refining and Petrochemical Industries) Tables 1 & 2 (Material Release Threshold Quantities):
|Material Hazard Classification||1||2||3||4|
|Toxic Inhalation Hazard (TIH) Zone A Materials|
LC50 less than or equal to 200 ppm
|Toxic Inhalation Hazard (TIH) Zone B Materials|
LC50 greater than 200 ppm and less than or equal to 1000 ppm
|Toxic Inhalation Hazard (TIH) Zone C Materials|
LC50 greater than 1000 ppm and less than or equal to 3000 ppmv
|Toxic Inhalation Hazard (TIH) Zone D Materials|
LC50 greater than 3000 ppm or less than or equal to 5000 ppm
|• Flammable Gases|
• Liquids with Initial Boiling Point ≤ 35 °C (95 °F) and Flash Point < 23 °C (73 °F)
• Other Packing Group I Materials excluding strong acids/bases
|• Liquids with a Initial Boiling Point > 35 °C (95 °F) and Flash Point < 60 °C (140 °F) • Liquids with Flash Point > 60 °C (140 °F) released at or above Flash Point|
• Other Packing Group II and III Materials excluding moderate acids/bases
• Strong acids and bases
|• Liquids with Flash Point > 60 °C (140 °F) released at a temperature below Flash Point|
• Moderate acids/bases
This is based on 10 x TQ (Threshold Quantities) in the API 754 tables – other ranking systems can be developed. Basically the greater the mass of hazardous material in the asset/equipment, the higher the Inventory score.
Inhalation Toxicity LC50 is the abbreviation used for the exposure concentration of a toxic substance lethal to half of the test animals – this applies to Toxic Vapours and is derived from Annex B of API 754.
For Toxic Liquids, the following definitions apply:
|Packing Group||Oral Toxicity|
|I||≤ 5||≤ 50||≤ 0.2|
|II||> 5 and ≤ 50||> 50 and ≤ 200||> 0.2 and ≤ 2|
|III||> 50 and ≤ 300||> 200 and ≤ 1000||> 2 and ≤ 4|
These are also taken from Annex B of API 754, where LD50 is the abbreviation used for the dose which kills 50% of the test population.
Cards can include images of identified equipment or plant areas. These could be photographs, CAD models, plot plans etc.
We recognise that it’s impractical to develop a set that covers all chemicals, therefore we welcome site, company or industry specific enquiries where we can develop an appropriate deck of relevant materials/equipment.
Pocket (card) size plot or site plans can be included in the box of cards to help orientate/navigate within the facility during the emergency ; particularly useful for offsite responders who are unfamiliar with the layout & equipment.
Preparation for future emergencies should consider related incidents and exploit that experience.
For information on our Incidents Cards, please click on the icon below:
For more information on Emergency Response cards, options & pricing, please contact us.